德鲁克《创新与企业家精神》序言(中英文)

李克勤(jixuie)题记:德鲁克的名著《创新与企业家精神》,在教育上的意义,不亚于在管理上的意义。就我自己而言,我在读他的这本书时,更多是得到一种思维上的启迪,有时候有开窍的感觉。但德鲁克不是告诉读者"如何做"(how-to),如果是那样的话就完全是管理的方式了。当然,教育和管理经常是融为一体的。不过二者还是有很大区别的。

下面我们还是来看他的这本书的序言吧。

序言

   本书将创新与企业家精神视为一种实践、一门学科。它并没有涉及企业家的心理和个性特征,而是探讨了他们的行动和行为。书中列举了很多案例,主要是为了阐明某个观点、某项规则或某个警示,而非着重讲述他们成功的故事。所以,这本书无论从写作意图还是写作手法上,与现今出版的许多有关创新与企业家精神的书籍和文章都有所不同。但是,它与其他出版物一样坚信创新与企业家精神的重要性。事实上,本书认为在过去的10~15年间,在美国出现的真正的企业家经济是现代经济和社会史上最具深远意义和最鼓舞人心的事件。尽管最近诸多讨论赋予企业家精神神秘的光环,认为那是天赋、才干、灵感或"灵光乍现",但是本书将创新与企业家精神视为有组织--且需要加以组织--有目的的任务和系统化的工作。事实上,它将创新与企业家精神视为企业高层管理者的工作的一部分。

Preface

This book presents innovation and entrepreneurship as a practice anda discipline. It does not talk of the psychology and the character traitsof entrepreneurs; it talks of their actions and behavior. It uses cases,but primarily to exemplify a point, a rule, or a warning, rather than assuccess stories. The work thus differs, in both intention and execu-tion, from many of the books and articles on innovation and entre-preneurship that are being published today. It shares with them thebelief in the importance of innovation and entrepreneurship. Indeed,it considers the emergence of a truly entrepreneurial economy in theUnited States during the last ten to fifteen years the most significantand hopeful event to have occurred in recent economic and social his-tory. But whereas much of today’s discussion treats entrepreneurshipas something slightly mysterious, whether gift, talent, inspiration, or“flash of genius,” this book represents innovation and entrepreneur-ship as purposeful tasks that can be organized—are in need of beingorganized—and as systematic work. It treats innovation and entre-preneurship, in fact, as part of the executive’s job.

    这是一部实用性很强的书,但它并不是告诉人们"如何做"的书,而是通过对政策与决策、机会与风险、结构与战略、人事任用与薪资奖励的叙述,来讨论"什么是创新与企业家精神"(what)、"何时(when)以及为什么(why)进行创新与企业家精神的实践"等诸多问题。

   本书分三个主题来讨论创新与企业家精神:创新实践、企业家精神的实践以及企业家战略。每个主题都是创新与企业家精神的一个"层面",而非一个阶段。

   本书的第一篇论述了创新实践。创新是有目的性的,是一门学科。它首先向读者展示了企业家应该在哪里以及如何寻找创新机遇。随后,又探讨了将创意发展成为可行的事业或服务所需注意的原则和禁忌。本书的第二篇为企业家精神的实践,重点讨论对象是机构--创新的载体。它从现存企业、公共服务机构以及新企业三个方面来讨论企业家管理。什么样的政策和措施才能使一个机构(无论是企业还是公共服务机构)成功地孕育出企业家精神?一个具有企业家精神的机构应该如何组织和配备人员?会有哪些障碍、陷阱以及常见的错误?这一篇最后会就企业家个人的角色和决策进行探讨。

   本书的第三篇是企业家战略,讨论了如何成功地将一项创新引入市场。毕竟,创新是否成功不在于它是否新颖、巧妙或具有科学内涵,而在于它是否能够赢得市场。

   这三篇与本书的引言与结论一起形成一个有机的整体。引言将创新与企业家精神与经济相联系,结论部分则将它们与社会联系在一起。

   企业家精神既非科学又非艺术,而是一种实践。当然,它有它的知识基础,本书将以系统的方式将这一基础呈现给读者。但是,正如其他所有实践领域(例如医学、工程学)的知识一样,企业家精神的知识只是一种达到目的的手段而已。事实上,实践知识的内容组成主要是由目的来界定的,也就是由实践本身来界定的。所以,这本书必须有多年的经验作为后盾。

   我对创新与企业家精神的研究始于30年前,也就是20世纪50年代中期。那时,有两年时间,我在纽约大学研究生商学院主持一个研究小组,每周集会一次,就创新与企业家精神进行长时间的研讨。这个小组的成员包括一些刚刚开始创业的企业家,其中不乏成功人士;另外还包括现有机构(大部分规模较大)的中层管理人士。这些机构各不相同,其中包括两所大医院、IBM公司、通用电气公司、一两家大银行、一家证券经纪公司、几家杂志和书籍出版公司、几家制药公司、一家全球性慈善组织、纽约天主教大主教管辖区以及长老会等。

   在那两年的时间里,这个研讨会所发展出来的概念和思想,都已由研究小组成员每周用他们自己机构中的亲身经历加以验证。我在随后长达20多年的顾问生涯中,继续对这些概念和思想加以验证、确认、提炼和完善。同样,我的顾问工作也涉及到许多不同机构。有来自企业的,包括制药和计算机等高科技公司、意外伤害保险等非科技公司、欧洲和美洲的全球性银行、个人创业公司、地方性建材批发公司以及日本的跨国公司等。另外,还有很多非营利组织,包括几家主要的工会组织、一些主要的社区组织(例如美国女童子军以及国际救援与发展合作组织(C A  R  E)、几家医院、大学、研究实验室以及各种宗教组织。

由于本书是多年观察、研究和实践的浓缩,所以我能够运用大量"微型案例"来阐明正反两方面的政策与措施。至于那些在书中所提及的机构,它们从来就不是我的客户(比如IBM),有关这些机构的实例或者已经被公开报道,或者由机构本身披露。除此以外,同我所有的管理书籍所采取的方式相同,我在本书中也不会公开与我有业务往来的机构的名字。但是,本书所选择的案例均为真实事件,讨论的也是真实存在的企业。

   最近几年,管理学者们才开始关注创新与企业家精神,而我早在几十年前就开始在我所有的管理书籍中,一直探讨这方面的问题。但是,本书是我第一部以系统化的形式完整阐述这一课题的书籍。它应该是这一重要课题的开端,而不是最后一部书。我衷心希望本书能为广大读者所接受,并对未来产生重大影响。


This is a practical book, but it is not a “how-to” book. Instead, itdeals with the what, when, and why; with such tangibles as policiesand decisions; opportunities and risks; structures and strategies;staffing, compensation, and rewards.

Innovation and entrepreneurship are discussed under three mainheadings: The Practice of Innovation; The Practice of

Entrepreneurship; and Entrepreneurial Strategies. Each of these is an“aspect” of innovation and entrepreneurship rather than a stage.

Part I on the Practice of Innovation presents innovation alike aspurposeful and as a discipline. It shows first where and how the entre-preneur searches for innovative opportunities. It then discusses theDo’s and Dont’s of developing an innovative idea into a viable busi-ness or service.

Part II, The Practice of Entrepreneurship, focuses on the institu-tion that is the carrier of innovation. It deals with entrepreneurialmanagement in three areas: the existing business; the public-serviceinstitution; and the new venture. What are the policies and practicesthat enable an institution, whether business or public service, to be asuccessful entrepreneur? How does one organize and staff for entre-preneurship? What are the obstacles, the impediments, the traps, thecommon mistakes? The section concludes with a discussion of individual entrepreneurs, their roles and their decisions.

Finally, Part III, Entrepreneurial Strategies, talks of bringing aninnovation successfully to market. The test of an innovation, after all,lies not its novelty, its scientific content, or its cleverness. It lies in itssuccess in the marketplace.These three parts are flanked by an Introduction that relates

innovation and entrepreneurship to the economy, and by a Conclusion thatrelates them to society.Entrepreneurship is neither a science nor an art. It is a practice. Ithas a knowledge base, of course, which this book attempts to presentin organized fashion. But as in all practices, medicine, for instance, orengineering, knowledge in entrepreneurship is a means to an end.Indeed, what constitutes knowledge in a practice is largely defined bythe ends, that is, by the practice. Hence a book like this should bebacked by long years of practice.My work on innovation and entrepreneurship began thirty yearsago, in the mid-fifties. For two years, then, a small group met undermy leadership at the Graduate Business School of New YorkUniversity every week for a long evening’s seminar on Innovationand Entrepreneurship. The group included people who were justlaunching their own new ventures, most of them successfully. Itincluded

midcareer executives from a wide variety of established,mostly large organizations: two big hospitals; IBM and GeneralElectric; one or two major banks; a brokerage house; magazine andbook publishers; pharmaceuticals; a worldwide charitable

organization; the Catholic Archdiocese of New York and the PresbyterianChurch; and so on.The concepts and ideas developed in this seminar were tested byits members week by week during those two years in their own workand their own institutions. Since then they have been tested, validat-ed, refined, and revised in more than twenty years of my own

consulting work. Again, a wide variety of institutions has been involved.Some were businesses, including

high-tech ones such as pharmaceuticals and computer companies; “no-tech” ones such as casualtyinsurance companies; “world-class” banks, both American andEuropean; one-man startup ventures; regional wholesalers of buildingproducts; and Japanese multinationals. But a host of “nonbusinesses”also were included: several major labor unions; major communityorganizations such as the Girl Scouts of the U.S.A. or C.A.R.E., theinternational relief and development cooperative; quite a few hospi-tals; universities and research labs; and religious organizations froma diversity of denominations.Because this book distills years of observation, study, and prac-tice, I was able to use actual “mini-cases,” examples and illustrationsboth of the right and the wrong policies and practices. Wherever thename of an institution is mentioned in the text, it has either never beena client of mine (e.g., IBM) and the story is in the public domain, orthe institution itself has disclosed the story. Otherwise organizationswith whom I have worked remain anonymous, as has been my prac-tice in all my management books. But the cases themselves reportactual events and deal with actual enterprises.Only in the last few years have writers on management begun topay much attention to innovation and entrepreneurship. I have beendiscussing aspects of both in all my management books for decades.Yet this is the first work that attempts to present the subject in itsentirety and in systematic form. This is surely a first book on a majortopic rather than the last word—but I do hope it will be accepted as aseminal work.


李克勤后记:德鲁克1984年在美国加州写下的序言,今天读来别有一番滋味在心头。就宏观而言,中国和美国无论政治制度还是人文环境都有很大区别。但是,就企业而言,就企业家而言,相通之处远大于相异之处。这是个基本判断。从长计议,中国从全球化的愿景看,应该有更大的自信去吸收世界各国企业理论的精华,包括美国的东西。


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系统分类: 教育  个人分类: 外国教育研究  本文标签:德鲁克创新与企业家精神道器变通
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德鲁克《创新与企业家精神》序言(中英文)

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